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When preceding a component marked S or X, "tre" changes to "tres" and "se" to "ses" or "sex"; similarly, when preceding a component marked M or N, "septe" and "nove" change to "septem" and "novem" or "septen" and "noven". Most names proposed for large numbers belong to systematic schemes which are extensible. Thus, many names for large numbers are simply the result of following a naming system to its logical conclusion—or extending it further. [ citation needed] Origins of the "standard dictionary numbers" [ edit ]

Or if you prefer the first mark can signify million, the second mark byllion, the third mark tryllion, the fourth quadrillion, the fifth quyillion, the sixth sixlion, the seventh septyllion, the eighth ottyllion, the ninth nonyllion and so on with others as far as you wish to go).The term milliard is unambiguous and always means 10 9. It is seldom seen in American usage and rarely in British usage, but frequently in continental European usage. The term is sometimes attributed to French mathematician Jacques Peletier du Mans circa 1550 (for this reason, the long scale is also known as the Chuquet-Peletier system), but the Oxford English Dictionary states that the term derives from post-Classical Latin term milliartum, which became milliare and then milliart and finally our modern term. Ten millisesexagintasescentillisesexagintasescentillisesexagintasescentillisesexagintasescentillisesexagintasescentillisesexagintasescentillisesexagintasescentillisesexagintasescentillisesexagintasescentillisesexagintasescentillisesexagintasescentillisesexagintasescentillisesexagintasescentillisesexagintasescentillisesexagintasescentillisesexagintasescentillisesexagintasescentillisesexagintasescentillisesexagintasescentillisesexagintasescentillisesexagintasescentillisesexagintasescentillisesexagintasescentillisesexagintasescentillisesexagintasescentillisesexagintasescentillisesexagintasescentillisesexagintasescentillisesexagintasescentillisesexagintasescentillisesexagintasescentillisesexagintasescentillisesexagintasescentilliard Since then, many others have engaged in the pursuit of conceptualizing and naming numbers that have no existence outside the imagination. One motivation for such a pursuit is that attributed to the inventor of the word googol, who was certain that any finite number "had to have a name". Another possible motivation is competition between students in computer programming courses, where a common exercise is that of writing a program to output numbers in the form of English words. [ citation needed] Indian and Pakistani English do not use millions, but have their own system of large numbers including lakhs (Anglicised as lacs) and crores. [1] English also has many words, such as "zillion", used informally to mean large but unspecified amounts; see indefinite and fictitious numbers. John Horton Conway and Richard K. Guy [15] have suggested that N-plex be used as a name for 10 N. This gives rise to the name googolplexplex for 10 googolplex = 10 10 10 100. Conway and Guy [15] have proposed that N-minex be used as a name for 10 −N, giving rise to the name googolminex for the reciprocal of a googolplex, which is written as 10 -(10 100). None of these names are in wide use.

Ou qui veult le premier point peult signiffier million Le second point byllion Le tiers point tryllion Le quart quadrillion Le cinq e quyllion Le six e sixlion Le sept. e septyllion Le huyt e ottyllion Le neuf e nonyllion et ainsi des ault' s se plus oultre on vouloit precederSince the system of using Latin prefixes will become ambiguous for numbers with exponents of a size which the Romans rarely counted to, like 10 6,000,258, Conway and Guy co-devised with Allan Wechsler the following set of consistent conventions that permit, in principle, the extension of this system indefinitely to provide English short-scale names for any integer whatsoever. [15] The name of a number 10 3 n+3, where n is greater than or equal to 1000, is formed by concatenating the names of the numbers of the form 10 3 m+3, where m represents each group of comma-separated digits of n, with each but the last "-illion" trimmed to "-illi-", or, in the case of m = 0, either "-nilli-" or "-nillion". [15] For example, 10 3,000,012, the 1,000,003rd "-illion" number, equals one "millinillitrillion"; 10 33,002,010,111, the 11,000,670,036th "-illion" number, equals one "undecillinilliseptuagintasescentillisestrigintillion"; and 10 29,629,629,633, the 9,876,543,210th "-illion" number, equals one "nonilliseseptuagintaoctingentillitresquadragintaquingentillideciducentillion". [15]

Names of larger numbers, however, have a tenuous, artificial existence, rarely found outside definitions, lists, and discussions of how large numbers are named. Even well-established names like sextillion are rarely used, since in the context of science, including astronomy, where such large numbers often occur, they are nearly always written using scientific notation. In this notation, powers of ten are expressed as 10 with a numeric superscript, e.g. "The X-ray emission of the radio galaxy is 1.3 ×10 45joules." When a number such as 10 45 needs to be referred to in words, it is simply read out as "ten to the forty-fifth" or "ten to the forty-five". This is easier to say and less ambiguous than "quattuordecillion", which means something different in the long scale and the short scale. Adam and Chuquet used the long scale of powers of a million; that is, Adam's bymillion (Chuquet's byllion) denoted 10 12, and Adam's trimillion (Chuquet's tryllion) denoted 10 18. All of the dictionaries included googol and googolplex, generally crediting it to the Kasner and Newman book and to Kasner's nephew (see below). None include any higher names in the googol family (googolduplex, etc.). The Oxford English Dictionary comments that googol and googolplex are "not in formal mathematical use". Concerning names ending in -illiard for numbers 10 6 n+3, milliard is certainly in widespread use in languages other than English, but the degree of actual use of the larger terms is questionable. The terms "Milliarde" in German, "miljard" in Dutch, "milyar" in Turkish, and "миллиард," milliard (transliterated) in Russian, are standard usage when discussing financial topics.Googolplex's short scale name is derived from it equal to ten of the 3,333,333,333,333,333,333,333,333,333,333,333,333,333,333,333,333,333,333,333,333,333,333,333,333,333,333,333,333,333,333,333,333,332nd "-illion"s (This is the value of n when 10 × 10 (3n + 3) = 10 10 100)

The names googol and googolplex inspired the name of the Internet company Google and its corporate headquarters, the Googleplex, respectively. Two naming scales for large numbers have been used in English and other European languages since the early modern era: the long and short scales. Most English variants use the short scale today, but the long scale remains dominant in many non-English-speaking areas, including continental Europe and Spanish-speaking countries in Latin America. These naming procedures are based on taking the number n occurring in 10 3 n+3 (short scale) or 10 6 n (long scale) and concatenating Latin roots for its units, tens, and hundreds place, together with the suffix -illion.When a number represents a quantity rather than a count, SI prefixes can be used—thus " femtosecond", not "one quadrillionth of a second"—although often powers of ten are used instead of some of the very high and very low prefixes. In some cases, specialized units are used, such as the astronomer's parsec and light year or the particle physicist's barn. Thewords bymillion and trimillion were first recorded in 1475 in a manuscript of Jehan Adam. Subsequently, Nicolas Chuquet wrote a book Triparty en la science des nombres which was not published during Chuquet's lifetime. However, most of it was copied by Estienne de La Roche for a portion of his 1520 book, L'arismetique. Chuquet's book contains a passage in which he shows a large number marked off into groups of six digits, with the comment: The naming procedure for large numbers is based on taking the number n occurring in 10 3 n+3 (short scale) or 10 6 n (long scale) and concatenating Latin roots for its units, tens, and hundreds place, together with the suffix -illion. In this way, numbers up to 10 3·999+3=10 3000 (short scale) or 10 6·999=10 5994 (long scale) may be named. The choice of roots and the concatenation procedure is that of the standard dictionary numbers if n is 9 or smaller. For larger n (between 10 and 999), prefixes can be constructed based on a system described by Conway and Guy. [15] Today, sexdecillion and novemdecillion are standard dictionary numbers and, using the same reasoning as Conway and Guy did for the numbers up to nonillion, could probably be used to form acceptable prefixes. The Conway–Guy system for forming prefixes: Apart from million, the words in this list ending with - illion are all derived by adding prefixes ( bi-, tri-, etc., derived from Latin) to the stem - illion. [11] Centillion [12] appears to be the highest name ending in -"illion" that is included in these dictionaries. Trigintillion, often cited as a word in discussions of names of large numbers, is not included in any of them, nor are any of the names that can easily be created by extending the naming pattern ( unvigintillion, duovigintillion, duoquinquagintillion, etc.). Traditional French usage has varied; in 1948, France, which had originally popularized the short scale worldwide, reverted to the long scale.